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Oriel students form gleeful club

first_imgStudents at Oriel are setting up their own glee club inspired by the popular TV show Glee.The proposal was presented as a motion to a JCR meeting originally as a bit of a joke. However, Ben Bluemel, one of the proposers said, “The response to the idea has been incredible.”Bluemel hopes the club will help bring members of the college together, and pointed out there were all sorts of students involved, including sportspeople and non-sportspeople, in the same spirit as the show.An ex-member of the very successful Oxford a capella group Out of the Blue will be helping them put together and practice their first number. They will be performing a mash-up of With or Without You and Don’t Stop Believing at their next JCR meeting.“There’s a lot of pressure,” commented Bluemel. They hope the popularity of the club will inspire other colleges to set up groups for them to rival or, at least, to crew date.last_img read more

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COOPER, ROBERT W.

first_imgFuneral services have been held for Robert W. Cooper, 73, a lifelong resident of Jersey City. He passed away Aug. 26, surrounded by his family. Robert retired as a structural mechanic from the Port Authority of NY/NJ in 2002. He received a Bachelor’s Degree in History at Jersey City State Teachers College. Robert was a member of the Knights of Columbus and the Carpenter’s Union. Robert completed his naval service on the USS Myles C Fox and also served as a sergeant in the US Army National Guard. He was always proud that he continued his family’s legacy of military service. Robert was also a member of American Legion Post 252. Robert enjoyed spending his winters in St. Petersburg, Fla. and his summers in the Poconos. He was an avid reader, an enthusiastic history buff, and a caring, generous man who always was ready to help others.He is survived by his wife of almost 50 years, Maryann (nee Accardi) and his daughter, Kim Cooper. He is also survived by nieces, nephews and his loyal rescue dog, Mojo. Services arranged by the Riotto Funeral Home, Jersey City.last_img read more

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Firkins announces shops closures and planned openings

first_imgTroubled bakery chain Firkins is closing three of its stores, just a few months after the chain was bought out of administration for the third time.However the West Midlands company – now trading as Newbridge Bakery – is set to open six stores in the region and insists it is trading positively.The 28-strong chain has closed shops in Kingstanding, Stourbridge and Harbourne in the last week, claiming they were “no longer appropriate for the needs of our growing business”. A spokeswoman said: “In Stourbridge, we are currently looking for new premises; in Harbourne, the deal has already been done for a relocated store that will be opening soon.” She added that the business was currently trading positively and that it was in advanced negotiations for a further five shops within the region. “We cannot reveal their location yet for commercial reasons.”There are no plans for further closures.The firm and 200 jobs were rescued by MD and sole director Ian Bolderston in December 2009, following his recovery of Firkins Bakery in 2006 and again in 2008.last_img read more

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News story: Ice on Mars

first_imgThe Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) is studying martian atmospheric trace gases and their sources in unprecedented detail. It will help us understand the source of the methane in Mars’ atmosphere and whether it is from a geological or biological source, and provide data relay services for future landed missions.The image is a composite of three images in different colours that were taken almost simultaneously by CaSSIS on 15 April. They were then assembled to produce this colour view.The orbiter’s camera is one of four instruments onboard the Trace Gas Orbiter, which also hosts two spectrometer suites and a neutron detector. An ice-filled, Martian crater is visible in the first images beamed to Earth from the new orbit of the ExoMars mission – supported by the UK Space Agency and Open University.The image taken by the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter from 400km above the surface clearly shows the rim of an ice-filled crater called Korolev, which is located at a high latitude in the northern hemisphere of the planet.ExoMars is a joint mission between the European Space Agency and Roscosmos. It comprises the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), which launched in 2016, and the ExoMars Rover which is currently being built by Airbus in Stevenage ahead of its launch in 2020.The UK Space Agency has contributed €287 million to the overall ExoMars mission and €14 million to the instruments over 13 years, making it the second largest European contributor after Italy. The funding includes £370,000 for the Open University to work on the spacecraft’s instrument operations.The ExoMars spacecraft arrived in orbit 400 km above the Red Planet a few weeks ago. The camera system, known as CaSSIS (Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System) activated on 20 March in preparation for the start of its main mission on 28 April.Dr Manish Patel, from the Open University, a member of the CaSSIS science team working on the instrument operations, said: The images that CaSSIS is beginning to return are simply fantastic. To see the quality of the colour in these first images is a testament to the hard work of the CaSSIS team in getting the instrument to Mars on TGO. This image heralds the start of a great mission. CaSSIS has proven it is going to generate plenty of exciting images over the mission duration and provide a major step forward in our understanding of the seasonal cycles at work on Mars.last_img read more

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Phil Lesh Announces Halloween Show At The Cap With Nicki Bluhm And Robert Randolph

first_imgPhil Lesh & The Terrapin Family Band have just announced their plans for Halloween this year. On October 31st, the group will be returning to The Capitol Theatre in Port Chester, New York, for a very special performance featuring Nicki Bluhm and Robert Randolph. This announcement comes after the Grateful Dead bassist’s multiple performances at LOCKN’ Festival this weekend, including one with Bob Weir recreating the seminal 1977 Grateful Dead album, Terrapin Station, and one with members of moe., which is slated to take place later in the evening today ahead of the festival’s close. Tickets for Phil Lesh & The Terrapin Family Band’s Halloween show on Tuesday, October 31st, go on sale on Friday, September 1st.[Photo: Andrew Blackstein]last_img read more

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“Painting Beyond Itself” conference a success

first_imgInternational conference “Painting Beyond Itself: The Medium in the Post-Medium Condition,” held last weekend at the Sackler Museum, was a smashing success with overflowing attendance during the conference’s two days. Plans for a book about the conference are in the works.The event was organized by Ewa Lajer-Burcharth, the William Dorr Boardman Professor of Fine Arts in the Department of History of Art and Architecture, and Isabelle Graw, a professor for art theory and art history, Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste (Städelschule), Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In response to recent developments in pictorial practice and critical discourse, “Painting Beyond Itself” sought to historicize and propose new approaches to the question of the medium. Reaching back to the earliest theoretical and institutional definition of painting as a medium in the Renaissance and 18th century, the conference traced the changing role of the medium in establishing painting as the privileged practice, discourse, and institution of modernity. In particular, the sessions explored the question of the specificity of the medium under the condition of its despecification. Bringing together an international group of scholars, critics, and artists, “Painting Beyond Itself” was a forum for a rich historical, theoretical, and practice-grounded conversation.last_img read more

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Q&A with Jameela Pedicini

first_imgJameela Pedicini is Harvard Management Company’s first vice president for sustainable investing. Working closely with Harvard President Drew Faust and President and CEO of HMC Jane Mendillo, Pedicini was instrumental in the University’s recent decision to sign the United Nations-supported Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI). She spoke with the Gazette about her charge to help the University think in more nuanced ways about environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors in investing.  GAZETTE: You joined HMC at the end of August as the subject matter expert in ESG and sustainable investing issues. How have you spent the intervening months?PEDICINI: My focus in the last eight months has been on getting my head around and learning about the portfolio. I have been working with the team here at HMC as well as with the University, specifically the Corporation Committee on Shareholder Responsibility, and I have also been meeting with students and faculty and staff to understand how the wider Harvard community thinks about sustainable investing.GAZETTE: What does that mean — getting your head around the portfolio?PEDICINI: Allow me to take a step back: We define sustainable investing as the integration of material environmental and social and governance factors into investment practices. It’s about doing good business — which is directly aligned with our mission to provide strong long-term investment results to the University. And so over the last eight months, I’ve been looking at the portfolio to understand what ESG risks our investment professionals are already factoring into their investment practices. For example, in our due diligence process, we’re already asking questions around health and safety issues and employment practices. So, it’s about understanding what we’re already doing as it relates to ESG, and then thinking about how we can improve our processes over the coming months and years.What is really important to understand is that we’re taking a considered approach to integrating ESG factors across asset classes so that we can enhance our ability to evaluate how these issues may impact the valuation of our investments and performance. I’m working to understand how we already assess ESG risks and then helping to identify ways to enhance our approach to evaluating ESG issues. It’s about collaborating with the investment professionals as well as with the University more broadly on these issues.GAZETTE: You’ve worked in this area for several years, but you have a fairly fresh perspective on Harvard’s approach to these issues. Where does the institution stand relative to its peers when it comes to engaging on ESG and related issues?PEDICINI: Jane Mendillo and President Faust have taken a leadership role in this area. The endowment space has not been an obvious leader of sustainable investment. But Harvard specifically, with its commitment from the top, I would say, is at the forefront of endowment management when it comes to looking at these issues.GAZETTE: Jane Mendillo has often said that, as a long-term investor, HMC is always focused on sustainability. What does she mean by that?PEDICINI: Good question. ESG risks can have a direct and indirect impact on a company’s performance. So, for instance, they can have a direct impact on a company’s profitability through increased regulation that can then lead to increased operating costs. Or ESG risks can indirectly impact a company’s long-term performance, such as its ability to attract talent and retain customer loyalty. For HMC, it’s about both managing the short-term ESG risks as well as having a thorough understanding as to how ESG issues may impact our performance over the medium and long term.GAZETTE: A lot of the work that you did in recent months resulted in Harvard University becoming a signatory to UN-supported PRI. What’s the significance of that step?PEDICINI: We’re the first U.S. endowment to become a signatory to Principles for Responsible Investment, so this is a major step within HMC, but this is also a big step within the endowment space more broadly. It entails formalizing our approach to sustainable investment and using the six principles as a guiding framework, which are about integrating ESG factors across each asset class. It entails incorporating ESG factors into our ownership policies and practices, seeking further disclosure from companies, and integrating ESG factors into our investment analysis. And, as a signatory to the PRI, we will be publicly reporting on how we are implementing the six principles in our investment practices.GAZETTE: Joining the PRI prompted some people to ask whether the University would reconsider its stance on divestment from holdings related to fossil fuels. Are those two things in some way related?PEDICINI: No, they’re not. I think it’s important in defining sustainable investment to also define what it’s not: We are not signaling in any way, by becoming a signatory to the PRI, that we are inclined to divest from a certain set of companies or a certain sector as a whole. Instead, we’re integrating ESG factors into our investment policies and practices so that we can be more informed investors. We’re looking out over the long term to ensure that we have the right information about these emerging risks, and also opportunities, so that we can make more informed decisions. In short, we’re enhancing our investment decision-making process.GAZETTE: All right. At the same time HMC joined what used to be known as the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP). How do those two things work together?PEDICINI: The Principles for Responsible Investment pertain to our investment process and practices internally; the CDP pertains to what information portfolio companies publicly disclose regarding climate change risks and opportunities. As an investor, we need reliable information about how companies are managing ESG issues. And the CDP works with investors — institutional investors, primarily — to request from public companies how they account for, and disclose information regarding, greenhouse gas emissions, as well as energy use and carbon risks associated with their business activities.GAZETTE: In recent months, there have been questions about a few properties owned or operated by HMC. I’m thinking particularly about timber operations in Argentina. Have you looked into some of those questions?PEDICINI: I was actually just in Argentina at the end of March, and I did an extensive due diligence trip with our natural resources team. I viewed all of our properties firsthand and had the opportunity to work with our team down there. Within the forestry industry in Argentina, they’re definitely leading the way by adhering to international standards on labor standards, health, and safety, as well as engaging with the local community. They’re doing a terrific job.Our natural resources portfolio has been a real value-add to the endowment, and HMC takes the proper stewardship of its properties very seriously. In natural resources, our approach focuses on ensuring that our properties are managed in such a way that they meet the standards necessary to achieve certification by an independent third-party organization. We do this through the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), which is an organization that oversees an extremely rigorous certification process. It includes an annual third-party audit evaluation to ensure that we are actually adhering to the FSC principles, and it promotes a process of continuous improvement by identifying risks and recommending changes.GAZETTE: With PRI, CDP, and reviewing individual properties abroad, it seems like there’s been quite a bit of activity in a relatively few months. Generally speaking, how would you characterize HMC’s approach to sustainable investing?PEDICINI: It’s about ESG integration. So, going back to my earlier point, we’re not limiting our investment opportunity. We’re actually enhancing our ability to make good investment decisions — now and in the future.last_img read more

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How textbooks taught white supremacy

first_imgGAZETTE: What are the roots of white supremacy? How is white supremacy connected to the history of slavery?YACOVONE: White supremacy precedes the origins of the United States. Every aspect of social interaction, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, was dominated by white identity, and white supremacy became an expression of American identity.Americans tend to see racism as a result of Southern slavery, and this thinking has all kinds of problems. First of all, slavery was in the North as well as in the South, and the people who formed the idea of American identity were not Southern slave owners, they were Northerners. The father of white supremacy was not a Southerner; it was John H. Van Evrie, a Canadian who ended up settling in New York City. Van Evrie argued that if no slaves existed, the class-based structure of Europe would have been transferred, kept, and developed in the American colonies. But with the African presence, Van Evrie said, the descendants of white Europeans saw that the difference among white people was virtually insignificant compared to what they perceived as differences between themselves and African Americans. This allowed democracy, which was an unpopular idea in the 17th and 18th century, to flourish and develop.We always forget that democracy was not an idealized form of government back then. In fact, it was considered an evil. Van Evrie’s argument was that Americans had to reimagine a new kind of government and social order and they could do so because of the African presence. This can also explain why white supremacy has persisted for so long, because it is an identity of oneself in contrast to others, a sort of a self-fulfilling, reinforcing thought about one’s self-perceived superiority. Even people who opposed slavery believed that African Americans could never be absorbed by white society. Samuel Sewall, who wrote the first antislavery pamphlet in 1700, condemned slavery, but he also characterized people of African descent as “a kind of extravasate Blood,” always alien. His idea remained central to the American mind for the next 200 years.GAZETTE: Some historians say that white supremacy ideology served to justify the enslavement of African Americans.YACOVONE: The main feature of white supremacy is the assumption that people with Anglo Saxon backgrounds are the primacy, the first order of humanity. Van Evrie, however, saw people of African descent as essential to do “the white man’s work,” and were designed to do so “by nature and god.” He wrote about six different books on the subject, and he used a racial hierarchy in which Caucasians were at the top and Africans at the bottom. You’d think that white supremacists were driven mostly by hate, but at the core they were driven by their ideas of racial superiority, which of course were pure fiction and had nothing to do with reality. White supremacy wasn’t developed to defend the institution of slavery, but in reaction to it, and it preceded the birth of the United States.A lot of the white supremacists in the North didn’t even want an African American presence there. Many Northerners advocated the American Colonization Society, which would export African Americans to Liberia. But there was no unanimity of ideas about white supremacy; the only thing they all agreed upon was the “superiority of the white race.” “White supremacy is a toxin. The older history textbooks were like syringes that injected the toxin of white supremacy into the mind of many generations of Americans.” Helping teachers and principals confront their own racism Harvard faculty recommend the writers and subjects that promote context and understanding During the 1920s, the 1930s, and the 1940s, it was astonishing to see positive assessments of slavery in American history textbooks, which taught that the African American’s natural environment was the institution of slavery, where they were cared for from cradle to grave. There was a legacy of African American writing about freedom, but the white power structure simply wouldn’t accept it as legitimate. They dismissed the slave narratives as propaganda, downplayed the history of Africans before slavery, and ignored the work of African American scholars such as W.E.B. Du Bois and others.GAZETTE: A report by the Southern Poverty Law Center found that schools failed to teach the “hard history” of African enslavement. What role have the textbooks played in the miseducation of many generations of Americans?YACOVONE:  This is the problem. We’re not teaching students the true American history because African American history is American history. I’ve been lecturing about this project, and every time I ask students what they learn about the history of slavery, they all said, “Not much.” But even if there are textbooks that deal with those issues in a more accurate way, white teachers are so intimidated that they won’t teach it.GAZETTE: You mentioned in an article in the Chronicle of Higher Education that while doing your research, you found the history book you read when you were a fifth grader. What did that book teach you about the history of slavery?YACOVONE: That was one of the great revelations of this research. Like so many of these books, “Exploring the New World” by O. Stuart Hamer and others, which was published repeatedly between 1953 and 1965, said almost nothing. All these books, particularly from 1840 for the next 25 years, go out of their way to not discuss slavery. Some would say that slavery began in 1619, but most said it began in 1620 because those who are writing this narrative are New Englanders, and 1620 is when the Pilgrims sailed on the Mayflower. Half the books from this early period got the date wrong. If the textbooks wrote about slavery, it was only one sentence and would never discuss the nature of slavery or include any descriptions. When American politics became absorbed by the debate over slavery, they could not avoid that, and would mention the 1820 Compromise [that admitted Maine to the union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state] and the 1850 Compromise [that abolished the slave trade -but not slavery- in Washington, D.C.]. None of the textbooks published prior to the Civil War would ever talk about the abolitionist movement, which began in the late 1820s. It wasn’t until 1853, when the educator Emma Willard published her massive history of the United States, that she mentioned the abolitionists, but she didn’t say who they were or what they were about, except that they were tools of Great Britain dedicated to destroying the republic. New book raises awareness of unconscious bias, and its effect on students of color A reading list on issues of racecenter_img Historian Donald Yacovone, an associate at the Hutchins Center for African & African American Research and a 2013 winner of the W.E.B. Du Bois medal, was researching a book on the legacy of the antislavery movement when he came across some old history school textbooks that stopped him cold — and led him to write a different book.Yacovone, who co-authored “The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross” with Henry Louis Gates Jr. in 2013, is now writing “Teaching White Supremacy: The Textbook Battle Over Race in American History.”The Gazette interviewed Yacovone about the origins of his research, his findings, and why he thinks it’s necessary to teach the difficult story of slavery and white supremacy and their legacies.Q&ADonald YacovoneGAZETTE:  How did you start examining history textbooks from the 19th and 20th centuries?YACOVONE:  I had begun a different book about the legacy of the antislavery movement and the rise of the Civil Rights era. I had spent several months at the Houghton Library before it closed down. When I was nearly finished with one particularly large collection, I wanted to take a break and find out how abolitionism had been taught in school textbooks. I thought this was going to be a quick enterprise: I’d go over to Gutman Library at the Graduate School of Education, take a look at a few textbooks, and keep going. Imagine my shock when I was confronted by a collection of about 3,000 textbooks. I started reviewing them, and I came across one 1832 book, “History of the United States” by Noah Webster, the gentleman who’s responsible for our dictionary. I was astonished by what I was reading so I just kept reading some more.In Webster’s book there was next to nothing about the institution of slavery, despite the fact that it was a central American institution. There were no African Americans ever mentioned. When Webster wrote about Africans, it was extremely derogatory, which was shocking because those comments were in a textbook. What I realized from his book, and from the subsequent ones, was how they defined “American” as white and only as white. Anything that was less than an Anglo Saxon was not a true American. The further along I got in this process, the more intensely this sentiment came out, I realized that I was looking at, there’s no other word for it, white supremacy. I came across one textbook that declared on its first page, “This is the White Man’s History.” At that point, you had to be a dunce not to see what these books were teaching.  “Americans tend to see racism as a result of Southern slavery, and this thinking has all kinds of problems.” GAZETTE: What did the textbooks published after the 1960s teach about slavery? Has there been any progress over the past few years?YACOVONE: In the mid 1960s, textbooks began noticeably to change because attitudes and scholarship were changing in the wake of the Civil Rights Movement. Scholars such as Kenneth Stampp reimagined Reconstruction, and it had a dramatic effect. There was a gradual reintroduction of the African American element in history textbooks. And now, many history teachers don’t even use textbooks. They’re using online resources. Some of the best work is being produced by the Zinn Education Project, the Gilder-Lehrman Center, and the Southern Poverty Law Center.But even when textbooks are accurate, teachers have to be willing to teach it. We know there are many white teachers who are afraid of doing it. And you have to have school systems, both public and private, committed to doing this work and not to punish teachers for doing so, which is happening. The resources are endless. But it’s complicated because in many states there are institutionalized approval processes that determine what textbook will be used. And as far as the publishing industry is concerned, this is huge money. Texas and California dominate and they determine what gets published and what doesn’t.GAZETTE: What are the risks of not teaching the full story of slavery and its legacy?YACOVONE: This is essential work that has to be done. If America is to be a nation that fulfills its democratic promise, the history of slavery and white supremacy have to be taught in schools across the country. We need to acknowledge that white supremacy remains an integral part of American society and we need to understand how we got to where we are. The consequences of not doing so are lethal. White supremacy is a toxin. The older history textbooks were like syringes that injected the toxin of white supremacy into the mind of many generations of Americans. What has to be done is teach the truth about slavery as a central institution in America’s origins, as the cause of the Civil War, and about its legacy that still lives on. The consequences of not doing so, we’re seeing every day.This interview has been condensed and edited for length and clarity. Related GAZETTE: I once heard a Harvard historian say that the Founding Fathers were white supremacists. Is that a fair characterization?YACOVONE: Of course. Exceptions existed, such as Massachusetts’s James Otis, but most owned slaves and those who didn’t, like Benjamin Franklin, preferred that people of African descent never existed in the American colonies. Thomas Jefferson is the classic example. He is the individual responsible for giving us the phrase that embodies the democratic promise — “All men are created equal” — and set the trend to exclude slavery from newly acquired territory. Yet, he refused to free his own slaves, considered people of African descent inherently inferior, and when he wrote those famous words in the Declaration of Independence he thought only of white men.GAZETTE: What did the textbooks published in the 20th century teach about slavery in comparison to those written in the 19th century?YACOVONE: For the most part, the textbooks from the pre-Civil War period through the end of the century followed a basic format: They would go from exploration to colonization to revolution to creation of the American republic, and then every succeeding presidential administration. Anything outside of the political narrative was not considered history and was not taught.During the brief period of Reconstruction (1863-1877), the story emphasized the fulfillment of democracy, and the ideology of freedom suffused many books. This was a dramatic change. I even came across a couple of books that contained pictures of African Americans, and I was flabbergasted when I discovered one that had a picture of Frederick Douglass — that was unheard of. Prior to Reconstruction, textbooks had a few pictures, some engravings. But they disappear pretty quick once we get into the 20th century, because the “Lost Cause” mythology takes over academia and white supremacy reappears with full force. “We’re not teaching students the true American history because African American history is American history.”last_img read more

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Biden faces scrutiny over reliance on executive orders

first_imgPresident Joe Biden and aides are showing touches of prickliness amid growing scrutiny of the new president’s reliance on executive orders in his first days in office. The president in just over a week has already signed more than three dozen executive orders and directives aimed at addressing the coronavirus pandemic as well as a gamut of other issues, including environmental regulations, immigration policies and racial justice. Biden has also sought to use the orders to erase foundational policy initiatives by former president Donald Trump. Senate Republican leader Mitch McConnell says Biden’s reliance on executive action in the early going conflicts with the Democrat’s pledge as a candidate to be a consensus builder.last_img read more

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Prime time muscadines

first_imgBy Dan RahnUniversity of GeorgiaIf you want your backyard muscadines to grow lots of grapes and not become a jungle, a University of Georgia scientist says it’s time to help them out.”Muscadines grow so vigorously every season the vines can get very congested if they go unpruned,” said UGA Cooperative Extension horticulturist Gerard Krewer.Late January and February, Krewer said, are prime time for muscadine pruning.”You can prune muscadines anytime they’re dormant,” he said. “But in late winter the vines are less likely to be cold-damaged after you prune.”Muscadines, Krewer said, produce fruit on the shoots that develop this year from the basal buds of last year’s shoots.Knowing that about muscadines tells you how to prune your vines. The part of the vine that grew after those first two to four buds of last year is unneeded growth. Cut that off.How to do itStart at the tip of each shoot, Krewer said, and follow it back to the first raised bump on the stem, the “collar” that marks where last year’s growth began. That should be anywhere from 6 inches to 5 feet from the tip.When you come to the “collar” where the 2006 growth begins, back up to the second to fourth bud and make your pruning cut. The vines may “bleed,” or ooze sap, Krewer said, but that won’t harm the plants.Besides keeping your vines from getting unmanageably tangled over the years, pruning will also assure you of more reliable crops of grapes.”If you let muscadines go unpruned,” Krewer said, “they tend to produce too heavily, which leads into alternate bearing seasons. That becomes a feast-or-famine kind of production.”A jungle already?If you’ve let your muscadines go unpruned long enough that they’re a tangled mess already, consider cutting them back to the original arm running down the wire.If you do that, though, you won’t have grapes next year, since next year’s grapes will grow only on shoots that emerge from last year’s buds.”Unless you’re willing to forgo a crop next year,” Krewer said, “I would suggest pruning one side back to the original cane and the other side back to the bottom two to four buds of 2006 growth.””Then next winter you can do the reverse,” he said, “severely pruning the other side. In that way, you’ll have grapes each year and still be able to clean up your vines by next winter.”On overgrown arbors, where you have seven or eight major branches, “you might want to take out one or two large arms each year,” he said. “That way, you can completely renovate the arbor in a few years.”Each year, he said, “be sure to cut the previous season’s growth back to two to four buds to keep the arbor from becoming overgrown again.”(Dan Rahn is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.)last_img read more

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