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Start planning for Eurozone break-up

first_imgMonday 22 November 2010 8:51 pm More From Our Partners Police Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgInside Ashton Kutcher and Mila Kunis’ not-so-average farmhouse estatenypost.comBrave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comMatt Gaetz swindled by ‘malicious actors’ in $155K boat sale boondogglenypost.com980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and evacuationsnypost.comMark Eaton, former NBA All-Star, dead at 64nypost.comSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comSidney Crosby, Alex Ovechkin are graying and frayingnypost.comUK teen died on school trip after teachers allegedly refused her pleasnypost.comFeds seized 18 devices from Rudy Giuliani and his employees in April raidnypost.com whatsapp whatsapp KCS-content Start planning for Eurozone break-up center_img ONE should always have a Plan B, an emergency exit strategy. Offices, cinemas and restaurants always have a way out in the event of a fire; nobody would want to travel on a boat without life rafts in working order. It is bizarre, therefore, that such common sense has until now been absent from economic and financial planning.Financial institutions grew into giant behemoths without anybody working out what would happen if things went wrong – there were no living wills, no special resolution procedures to unwind bust banks without taking down entire economies, no real plan of action to deal with catastrophe. The assumption appeared to be either that Armageddon would never happen or that the government would always be able to step in and sort everything out easily if it did. It was the same with the single currency. Countries that took part purchased a one-way ticket on the Titanic. There was no way of exiting, no mechanism to allow states that ultimately couldn’t cope to pull out. Problems were defined away: in theory, bailouts were illegal and all member states were contracted to pursue sustainable policies. In the case of the Eurozone, this was deliberate: political projects of that magnitude need to feel inevitable if they are ever to have a chance of getting off the ground. Lots of work has taken place on trying to devise special bankruptcy procedures for banks, especially in America. Yet progress has been slow and none of this is ready for Ireland’s fallen giants. But it is not too late for a new plan to allow weaker countries to exit the euro at a minimum economic cost to the rest of us. George Osborne was right to warn Eurosceptics that “I told you so isn’t much of an economic policy” but that doesn’t mean that endless bailouts are the answer either. Imagine what would happen were the contagion to reach Italy or Spain. The European Central Bank would step in, purchasing hundreds of billion of euros worth of bonds from those countries, paid for by freshly created money. This would outrage the Germans, who only put up with the euro because they think the European Central Bank shares the Bundesbank’s hawkishness. German citizens would rightly hate to see the value of the euro in their pocket being put at risk by the ECB monetising the debt of profligate Club Med countries. They would be even more angered by the next step, an Irish or Greek-style bailout. The disenchantment would work both ways. There have been dozens of IMF bailouts over the years, mainly of countries in Africa and Latin America; rarely do the recipients thank their “rescuers”. Bailouts always come with strings attached and invariably fuel rage, protectionism and nationalism. It would be no different in the EU.So it is looking grim for the single currency. One option would be for troubled countries to be booted out. Unfortunately, replacement currencies would lack credibility and slump instantly, making it impossible for countries to repay any euro-denominated debt. They would have to peg their new currencies to a commodity, such as gold, but that would require a credible economic policy. Another option would be for the Eurozone to break into two, with the core – led by Germany – adopting a strong currency and the periphery a weaker one. Again, this would be fraught with problems. One thing is certain, however: now is the time to begin working on a plan B for the Eurozone. [email protected] Share by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStoryTotal PastThe Ingenious Reason There Are No Mosquitoes At Disney WorldTotal PastPeople TodayNewborn’s Strange Behavior Troubles Mom, 40 Years Later She Finds The Reason Behind ItPeople TodaySerendipity TimesInside Coco Chanel’s Eerily Abandoned Mansion Frozen In TimeSerendipity TimesZen HeraldNASA’s Voyager 2 Has Entered Deep Space – And It Brought Scientists To Their KneesZen Heraldmoneycougar.comThis Proves The Osmonds Weren’t So Innocentmoneycougar.comAlphaCute30 Rules That All “Hells Angels” Have To FollowAlphaCuteTaonga: The Island FarmThe Most Relaxing Farm Game of 2021. No InstallTaonga: The Island Farmthedelite.comNetflix Cancellations And Renewals: The Full List For 2021thedelite.com Show Comments ▼ Tags: NULLlast_img read more

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G4S Botswana Limited (G4S.bw) HY2005 Presentation

first_imgG4S Botswana Limited (G4S.bw) listed on the Botswana Stock Exchange under the Support Services sector has released it’s 42005 presentation results for the half year.For more information about G4S Botswana Limited (G4S.bw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the G4S Botswana Limited (G4S.bw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: G4S Botswana Limited (G4S.bw)  42005 presentation results for the half year.Company ProfileG4S (Botswana) Limited provides security solutions for individual and business needs in Botswana. It operates in the following sectors: Manned Security provides integrated security solutions to airports, energy, mining, construction, custodial services, cash solutions, hospitality and financial institutions; Security Systems provides a service to monitor alarms, electric fences, fire alarms, medical emergency alarms, illegal access signals, vehicle tracking, low battery power alerts, remote panic buttons, CCTV remote images and fleet management services; Facilities Management provides a service for rent collection, utilities and services, inspecting and maintaining properties, and maintenance services which include electrical, plumbing, carpentry and building services; Cleaning Services provides contract cleaning services for offices, shopping malls, banks, schools and universities. G4S (Botswana) Limited is a subsidiary of G4S International 105 (UK) Limited.last_img read more

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The National Investment Trust Limited (NITL.mw) HY2019 Interim Report

first_imgThe National Investment Trust Plc (NITL.mw) listed on the Malawi Stock Exchange under the Investment sector has released it’s 2019 interim results for the half year.For more information about The National Investment Trust Plc (NITL.mw) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the The National Investment Trust Plc (NITL.mw) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: The National Investment Trust Plc (NITL.mw)  2019 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileThe National Investment Trust Plc (NITL) manages a closed-end fund that invests in a diversified of Malawi Stock Exchange listed shares and unlisted private securities. The principle objective of NITL is to provide a vehicle for the public to participate in equity investment in Malawi. The fund is a product of Malawi’s progressive privatisation policy and provides income and capital growth opportunities for investors. Financial gain from investments are tax free if held for more than a year. NITL manages a portfolio of investments with funds raised by selling units allocated according to the amount invested in the fund. The NITL manages two Unit Trusts; the NITL Local Equity Fund and the NITL Global Opportunities Fund. Both provide favourable middle- to long-term performance with controlled risk and tax-free earnings. The holding company is based in Mauritius. The National Investment Trust Plc (NITL) is listed on the Malawi Stock Exchangelast_img read more

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Hotshots: Glasgow Warrior Tommy Spinks

first_imgI wasn’t offered anything by Edinburgh or Glasgow when I left school but Simon Amor signed me. I learned a lot and have now joined Glasgow, which is a great opportunity for me.Have you enjoyed captaining Scotland U20?   I targeted the captaincy for the Six Nations and held onto it for the Junior World Cup. It is something I enjoy and take a lot of pride in. Home and away: Spinks has played at London Scottish LATEST RUGBY WORLD MAGAZINE SUBSCRIPTION DEALS RW verdict: This 20-year-old lock/back-row has impressed the Warriors and is a natural leader.Want to stay up to date with the latest rugby hotshots every month? Why not subscribe to Rugby World? Click here for the latest deals, or find out how to download the digital edition here. When did you start playing?I started mini rugby at North Berwick when I was about five. I played for North Berwick High School 1st XV when I was only a fourth year. Duncan Harrison, the coach at Fettes College, helped me get a scholarship there.What other sports have you played?   My mum, Joanna Spinks, was around fourth in the world at judo when she was 17 and I did judo until I was about ten. In my first summer at Fettes I did athletics and got bronze in the discus at the National Schools Championship.You have just finished a year at London Scottish?  last_img read more

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Video: Archbishop Joris Vercammen on the WCC

first_img Rector Hopkinsville, KY By Matthew DaviesPosted Oct 31, 2013 New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Pittsburgh, PA Tags Associate Rector Columbus, GA An Evening with Aliya Cycon Playing the Oud Lancaster, PA (and streaming online) July 3 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Knoxville, TN Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Rector Washington, DC Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Episcopal Church releases new prayer book translations into Spanish and French, solicits feedback Episcopal Church Office of Public Affairs Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Submit a Job Listing Submit a Press Release Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Youth Minister Lorton, VA Submit an Event Listing Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Rector Albany, NY Video, Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Featured Events Director of Music Morristown, NJ Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Video: Archbishop Joris Vercammen on the WCC Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA [Episcopal News Service]  Archbishop Joris Vercammen of the Old Catholic Churches of the Union of Utrecht, the Episcopal Church’s oldest full communion partner, talks about the importance of the World Council of Churches and its vital role in the global ecumenical movement. Rector Belleville, IL Curate Diocese of Nebraska Rector Smithfield, NC Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Rector Bath, NC TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Rector Collierville, TN Press Release Service An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Featured Jobs & Calls Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Ecumenical & Interreligious, Rector Tampa, FL Rector Martinsville, VA Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest WCC Assembly 2013 Rector Shreveport, LA Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Virtual Episcopal Latino Ministry Competency Course Online Course Aug. 9-13 The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Anglican Communion, last_img read more

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Anglican women pledge to ‘change the world’ after UN conference…

first_img Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Associate Rector Columbus, GA Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Rector Smithfield, NC Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Rector Albany, NY Director of Music Morristown, NJ Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Featured Jobs & Calls The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Submit a Press Release Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Rector Knoxville, TN Youth Minister Lorton, VA TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Curate Diocese of Nebraska Gender Justice, AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Featured Events Rector Pittsburgh, PA Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Tags Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Submit a Job Listing Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Submit an Event Listing Rector Tampa, FL The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Rector Washington, DC Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Rector Hopkinsville, KY Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Anglican women pledge to ‘change the world’ after UN conference on economic empowerment Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Press Release Service Rector Bath, NC Anglican Communion, [Anglican Communion News Service] Anglican delegates attending the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women in New York have returned home pledging to “change the world” after what they described as a life-changing time at the UN.The group, drawn from more than 20 countries, said UNCSW61 –which focused on women’s economic empowerment – had been “an invaluable experience of spiritual and political benefit to us and to our communities.”Full article. Rector Belleville, IL Women’s Ministry Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Rector Shreveport, LA Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Rector Martinsville, VA Rector Collierville, TN Posted Mar 29, 2017 last_img read more

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Episcopal churches in the Carolinas assess damage, offer help after…

first_imgEpiscopal churches in the Carolinas assess damage, offer help after Hurricane Florence Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Rector Smithfield, NC Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI Rector Bath, NC Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Associate Rector Columbus, GA Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Submit a Press Release The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Press Release Service Director of Music Morristown, NJ Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Rector Pittsburgh, PA Rector Martinsville, VA An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Youth Minister Lorton, VA Rector Knoxville, TN Submit a Job Listing By David PaulsenPosted Sep 17, 2018 Rector Shreveport, LA Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Featured Events Rector Belleville, IL Submit an Event Listing Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Rector Collierville, TN Rector Albany, NY Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Rector Hopkinsville, KY TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC [Episcopal News Service] The storm has moved on, but the impact from Hurricane Florence still is being felt by the dioceses, congregations and Episcopalians in the Carolinas as they deal with power outages, downed trees, flooded neighborhoods and impassable roads.The bishops of the five Episcopal dioceses in North and South Carolina issued a joint statement Sept. 15 pledging their support for those affected by the storm and asking for Episcopalians everywhere to help by giving to Episcopal Relief & Development.“We are assessing the damage to our communities, which as you will know from news reports, varies widely. Conditions will continue to change for days due to rising rivers,” the bishops said. “We are blessed by your prayers and assurances of support and give thanks to God for you. As the Body of Christ, you give us tremendous strength and encouragement.”At least 23 people have died in North and South Carolina due to the storm, which brought hurricane-force winds as it made landfall early Sept. 15 near Wilmington, North Carolina. The storm weakened as it continued west, but flooding remains a threat even days later. Hundreds of roads were still closed Sept. 17, including parts of Interstate 40 and Interstate 95.Each Episcopal diocese has been in regular contact with Episcopal Relief & Development while coordinating pastoral response with clergy members. The storm forced many congregations to cancel Sunday services on Sept. 16, and lists of closures are being updated day to day.The Episcopal Church in South Carolina, which encompasses the coastal half of the state, reported that at least 15 of its congregations had canceled services. Bishop Skip Adams postponed a visit to St. Alban’s Episcopal Church in Kingstree “due to the likelihood that the road near the church may not be passable on Sunday.”The Diocese of East Carolina is updating its “hurricane hub” webpage with the latest information about the storm’s aftermath, including the continued closure of the Diocesan House in Kinston. On its Facebook page, the diocese is sharing highlights of the post-Florence experience of its congregations, located in North Carolina’s coastal region.One photo shows a large tree that split and toppled on church property at St. James Episcopal Church in Wilmington. The tree did not appear to have hit the church building.St. Luke’s Episcopal Church in Currituck, North Carolina, posted a photo of the message that now is displayed on its sign: “Welcome back. We made it out fine. Pray for the rest of N.C.”Trinity Episcopal Church in Chocowinity, North Carolina, shared a photo of its Sunday service on Sept. 16, attended by about a half dozen members who were able to make it to the church safely.“In spite of no electricity, our small family was able to Worship God and pray for all of those less fortunate. We continue to keep our Trinity Family in our prayers as well as all who are affected by the hurricane,” the Facebook post said.Members of Church of the Servant in Wilmington worked last week to secure the church building and to wrap furniture in plastic before Hurricane Florence hit. The Rev. Jody Greenwood, the church’s rector, reported Sept. 17 that the property appeared to be in good shape after the storm.“I stopped by the church this morning and we do have power. Tree debris and some fence panels are down, but nothing major in the yard,” she said on Facebook.The Diocese of North Carolina, which includes the central third of the state, sent an email newsletter to its members on Sept. 17 noting that the scope of the disaster is still being assessed. So far, its congregations have reported no major damage from the storm.It also will be working with clergy members to plan relief efforts. Volunteers will be needed, the diocese said, but it asked members not to go to the affected areas on their own until the precise needs are confirmed. In the meantime, donations are welcome.Episcopal Relief & Development said before Florence made landfall that it was working with 11 dioceses on response plans. During the disaster recovery, it will work “to equip congregational and diocesan leadership with critical tools and resources as they prepare to serve the most vulnerable communities impacted by the storm.”Some of the worst flooding from the storm happened in the city of New Bern, North Carolina, which is northeast of Wilmington and sits on the Neuse River near where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. More than 4,300 homes and more than 300 businesses in the city reportedly were damaged.Christ Church, the Episcopal congregation in New Bern, reported that the church property made it through the storm without sustaining serious damage, but it called members of the congregation together Sept. 17 for an afternoon Eucharist and cleanup. It also is working to match resources to needs in the community and has asked anyone interested in helping to consider buying items for the local shelter or donating money to support the church’s efforts.“I know more than a few of our Christ Church family will need immediate help in getting their homes and yards cleaned up. Thank you to those who have offered your labor, and please do not be shy about asking for help,” the Rev. Paul Canady, rector at Christ Church, said in a Facebook post.– David Paulsen is an editor and reporter for the Episcopal News Service. He can be reached at [email protected] Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Rector Tampa, FL Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Featured Jobs & Calls In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Rector Washington, DC Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Curate Diocese of Nebraska last_img read more

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Media freedom still under attack in Bahrain

first_img March 17, 2021 Find out more Tenth anniversary of Bahraini blogger’s arrest The Bahraini authorities have been targeting photographers, cameramen and other news and information providers since 2011, and they continue to use trumped-up charges of illegal assembly and attacks on the state to prevent journalists and bloggers from operating.Cameraman Mohammed Al Najar was arrested by riot police while covering a protest in the west Manama district of Daih on 23 February. They released him a few hours later after beating and insulting him, and after taking his jacket and glasses.A cameraman working for the Al-Wefaq opposition association was released on 22 February after being arrested while filming a protest in Bilad Al-Qadeem and spending a week in prison.Two Reuters journalists, photographer Hamad Mohammed and cameraman Aamer Mohammed, were hit on 5 January. Although wearing a clearly-marked press vest, Mohammed was again directly hit by a teargas canister on 30 January, as was Agence France-Presse photographer Mohammed Al Shaikh.Police deliberately targeted reporters covering a series of protests in Bilad Al-Qadeem. Although wearing a clearly-marked press vest, EPA photographer Mazen Mahdi was hit several times hit by teargas canisters and shotgun pellets during clashes between police and protesters on 1, 2 and 4 January. Awaiting trialMustapha Rabea and Ahmed Zain Aldeen, two photographers who were arrested in September together with a third photographer, Houssam Sroor, appeared in court on 26 February on charges of attacking policemen and participating in an illegal gathering. Further hearings have been set for 23 and 24 March.Detained photographer and cameraman Hussam Suroor has hearings set for 23 and 24 March as he continues to be prosecuted on several counts of attacking police, bombing, and participating in an illegal gathering. Arrested on 4 September he was already given a 10-year jail sentence on 30 September 2014 for allegedly attacking an official, participating in demonstrations and possessing flammable products. Aged only 17, he is serving this sentence in Jaw prison. Ahmed Al Mousawi, a well-known photographer who has been detained since 10 February 2014, is being prosecuted on a charge of supplying protesters with SIM cards. His next hearing is scheduled for 29 March.There have been several of hearings in photographer Ammar Abdul Rasool’s appeal against the two-year jail sentence he received on 28 October and the next is scheduled for 1 April. The winner of 81 international awards, he was arrested on 25 July 2014 after plainclothes security men raided his house in the village of Eke and confiscated two cameras and a mobile phone. He is accused of participating in an illegal gathering while at a religious ritual same night.Ahmed Al Fardan, a photographer who has received international awards, has been given a three-month jail sentence on a charge of protesting illegally. Originally arrested in December 2013 and released after two weeks, he is now out on bail of 100 dinars pending the outcome of his appeal, which is due to be heard on 13 December 2015.Fardan, who has worked for the Nurphoto, Demotex and Sipa photo agencies, was arrested at his home in Abu Saiba (west of Manama) at around 3 a.m. on 26 December. According to the information obtained by Reporters Without Borders, he was beaten at the time of his arrest.Reporters Without Borders condemns this systematic persecution of journalists and human right defenders and the renewed deterioration in the climate for freedom of information in Bahrain.“We call on the judicial authorities to release Ammar Abdul Rasool and all other news and information providers who have been arrested arbitrarily, Reporters Without Borders deputy programme director Virginie Dangles said. We also urge the Bahraini authorities to stop putting direct and indirect pressure on anyone daring to transmit information at variance with what is authorized.”Cracking down on tweetsThe authorities also continue to crack down on online content critical of the regime.Nabeel Rajab, who heads the Bahrain Centre for Human Rights, is facing the possibility of being returned to prison on 15 March, when a court is due to rule on his appeal against a six-month jail sentence for allegedly insulting the security forces in tweets.Previously acquitted of posting defamatory tweets in 2012, he was released in May 2014 after two years in detention on charges of participating in an illegal gathering, and inciting others to do so.Online activist Yaqoub Slais was fined 200 dinars on 20 February in connection with a tweet on 31 August 2014 (when he was held for a day) in which he criticized forcing solders to vote for certain candidates in the parliamentary elections.The interior ministry arrested nine Bahrainis on 27 January on charges of misusing social media and mocking the death of Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah. Their next hearing has been set for 16 March. Blogger Nader Abdul Emam was released on 15 January when an appeal court reduced his original six-month sentence to four months ¬– less than the time he had already been held since his arrest on a charge of insulting a religious leader on Twitter. Arbitrary arrest and tortureSayed Baqer Al Kamel, a photographer who has received 44 international awards, was arrested while leaving the country via the King Fahd causeway to Saudi Arabia on 9 December, and was held for two days. He was previously detained for two days in March 2014.Photographer Mohammed Al Oraibi, was summoned to CID headquarters on 29 October and was told he would face arrest and torture again if he did not become an informant. He filed a complaint against the CID officers who tortured him after his arrest in February 2014 but the complaint has not yet been heard.”Reporters Without Borders urges the Bahraini authorities to hold a serious investigation into the May 2011 torture of journalist Nazeeha Saeed. A special unit in the interior ministry has reopened the case, questioning Saeed again in October and getting her to identify her interrogators in November”, Reporters Without Borders deputy programme director Virginie Dangles said.Writer, blogger and women’s rights activist Ghada Jamsheer continues to be embroiled in hearings in 10 different cases following her release on 15 December after spending three months in jail on a defamation charge for tweeting about alleged corruption at King Hamad University Hospital.Jamsheer was arrested after being summoned to CID headquarters for questioning on 9 September. According to the Gulf Centre for Human Rights, she is banned from appearing on Bahraini radio or TV and her website has been blocked since 2009. Cameraman Qassim Zain Aldeen lost his appeal on 25 February and is serving a three-year sentence right now in Jaw prison, where he is accused of vandalism in Dry Dock prison after his arrest in August 2013. Hussain Hubail, a press photographer who was given a five-year jail sentence in April 2014, is supposed to be receiving medical treatment in a hospital but officials at Jaw prison refuse to transfer him to the hospital when he has appointments or when otherwise necessary. He has missed two appointments and must see a doctor urgently because the medication he was given for high blood pressure has run out.Censorship and revoking citizenshipAl Arab News Channel’s broadcasts from Bahrain were suspended just hours after its launch on 2 February after it interviewed an opposition figure in its first news bulletin. The Information Affairs Authority said on 9 February that it had “failed to obtain the required licensing approval to commence broadcasting in Bahrain.”Three reporters – Reem Khalifa of the Associated Press, Fareshta Saeed of Reuters and Nazeeha Saeed – were banned from attending the head of the Al-Wefaq opposition group’s appearances in court on 28 January and 25 February. Isa Ibrahim, a photographer working for the Al-Wasat newspaper, was also asked not to take any pictures and to leave the area.The government revoked the Bahraini nationality of journalist Abbas Busafwan, writer Ali Al Dairi, blogger Ali AbdulEmam and 72 other Bahrainis on 31 January without charging or trying any of them. Although the right to one’s nationality is internationally accepted, the Bahraini authorities have been using its withdrawal to punish outspoken critics and deter dissent.Reporters Without Borders calls the authorities to rescind this decision and stop harassing journalists and bloggers for criticizing the government and the royal family. Bahrain is ranked 163rd out of 180 countries in the 2015 Reporters Without Borders press freedom index. RSF_en BahrainMiddle East – North Africa Follow the news on Bahrain October 14, 2020 Find out more to go further Organisation Receive email alerts Help by sharing this information center_img News BahrainMiddle East – North Africa News News Coronavirus “information heroes” – journalism that saves lives March 11, 2015 – Updated on March 9, 2017 Media freedom still under attack in Bahrain News June 15, 2020 Find out more German spyware company FinFisher searched by public prosecutorslast_img read more

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Video: For God So Loved the World

first_img Subscribe faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,Virtual Schools PasadenaHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Name (required)  Mail (required) (not be published)  Website  HerbeautyAt 9 Years Old, This Young Girl Dazzled The World Of FashionHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThis Trend Looks Kind Of Cool!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty10 Female Celebs Women Love But Men Find UnattractiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty5 Things To Avoid If You Want To Have Whiter TeethHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyThese Lipsticks Are Designed To Make Your Teeth Appear Whiter!HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWant To Seriously Cut On Sugar? You Need To Know A Few TricksHerbeautyHerbeauty Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Community News Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday More Cool Stuff Sermons and Lessons Video: For God So Loved the World Delivered by REV. J. EDWIN BACON, JR., ALL SAINTS CHURCH Published on Wednesday, March 18, 2015 | 11:42 am Make a commentcenter_img Community News This sermon was delivered by Rev. J. Edwin Bacon, Jr., Rector of All Saints Church, Pasadena on Sunday, March 15, 2015. Ed Bacon has been the rector of All Saints Church since 1995. During his tenure All Saints has continued its reputation for energetic worship, a radically inclusive spirit, and a progressive peace and justice agenda.Under Ed’s leadership All Saints has created New Vision Partners, a non-profit resource center to create innovative, collaborative partnerships for 21st century social action and urban ministry with interfaith colleagues, and Transformational Journeys, physical journeys of faith which transform participants through challenging encounters with other local and global communities.All Saints Church, 132 N. Euclid Avenue, Pasadena, (626) 796-1172 or visit www.allsaints-pas.org. Top of the News Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena First Heatwave Expected Next Week 6 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Business Newslast_img read more

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The Curious Origin Of The Crime Of Outraging Religious Feelings By Insulting Religious Beliefs

first_imgColumnsThe Curious Origin Of The Crime Of Outraging Religious Feelings By Insulting Religious Beliefs Naman Jain25 Sep 2020 2:01 AMShare This – xIndian legal traditions invariably retain their British heritage to this day – this enduring legacy subsists unrivalled in the core of our criminal jurisprudence. The Indian Penal Code (“IPC”), with certain modifications, dates back to 1860. The exercise actually began in 1834, when the First Law Commission, under the chairmanship of Lord Macaulay, set out to codify law in India. It…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginIndian legal traditions invariably retain their British heritage to this day – this enduring legacy subsists unrivalled in the core of our criminal jurisprudence. The Indian Penal Code (“IPC”), with certain modifications, dates back to 1860. The exercise actually began in 1834, when the First Law Commission, under the chairmanship of Lord Macaulay, set out to codify law in India. It first came into force on 1 January, 1862, and represented a transplantation of English law to India. Interestingly, the UK does not have a criminal code. One relic of this legacy, and going by the frequency of reports of its invocation, one of the most active, is Section 295A – a provision that has, today, enabled just about anyone to claim to be a victim of a crime – the crime of hurting religious sentiments. But where does it come from? There seems to be no equivalent in other jurisdictions. It was also not a part of Macaulay’s original draft. The answer lies with the story of Rangila Rasul. Published in 1924 by one Mahashe Raj Pal, the 60-odd page pamphlet immediately stirred up a great deal of controversy between the Hindu and Muslim Communities, particularly in the Punjab. The author of the pamphlet remained anonymous, although researchers have since determined that it was the work of an Arya Samajist by the name of Pandit Chamupati. The pamphlet contained a most scurrilous attack on the Prophet. In his account of the various wives of the Prophet and the circumstances surrounding his marriage to each of them, “the author included subtle but direct criticisms of the Prophet and of Islam while continuing to maintain his ‘persona’ as an admirer of them”. The pamphlet was widely viewed as blasphemous and highly offensive to Muslims. Punjab, in the 1920s, was enveloped in a heavily charged atmosphere, following the Jallainwala Bagh Massacre, which, coupled with the passing of the Rowlatt Act, became the impetus for the launch of Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement. The Movement was withdrawn in 1922, following the Chauri Chaura incident. Of the 228 men put on trial for “rioting and arson” at Chauri Chaura, 172 had been sentenced to death, while 6 had died in custody during the course of the 8-month long trial. Protests erupted all over the country. Radical humanist, and founding member of the Communist Party of India, M. N. Roy, termed the verdict “legalised murder” and proclaimed that there could be no other “instance of imperialist “justice” which surpasses this one in its majestic vindictiveness and brutality.” The Allahabad High Court ultimately confirmed 19 death sentences, commuted 110 to life, and sent the rest to long term imprisonment. The Khilafat Movement originated at the end of the First World War, with the aim of protesting the harsh terms of the Treaty of Sévres, which dismembered the Ottoman Empire, and placed severe restrictions on the rights of the Caliph. The Movement sought to restore the Caliph to his rightful position. After the 1920 alliance between the Khilafat leaders and the INC, the Khilafatists became a major part of the Non-Cooperation Movement, which now called for Swaraj and the restoration of the Caliphate. This marriage of convenience between the two Movements started collapsing as the participants were torn between supporting the secular Congress, the symbolic Khilafat, and the separatism-leaning Muslim League. With the abolition of the Empire in 1922, appointment of a nominal Caliph, and subsequent abolition of the Caliphate in 1924, the Khilafat Movement also faded into history. As the leadership fragmented, and headed in different directions, communal tensions started rising. Punjab especially became ground zero for separatist overtures, which were at a nascent stage at that time. The period witnessed regular provocative, bitter and sometimes abusive public debates, and a remarkable increase in riots and communal violence. According to Dr Thursby, from 1923 through 1928, there were 112 riots which were classified as serious communal disorders. Approximately 450 people died, and more than 5000 were seriously injured. Even Dr Ambedkar takes note of the 1920s, which marked a watershed moment in development of communal tensions in India. With this background, the publication of Rangila Rasul, in immediate response to Sitaka Chinala, which made some very uncharitable comments about Sita, was bound to add fuel to the fire. Initially circulated in very limited Arya Samaji circles, the pamphlet came to wider readership when it was mentioned by Gandhi in an article on Hindu–Muslim unity in June, 1924. There is indeed no such thing as bad publicity. The criticism also probably marked the beginning of Gandhi’s falling out with the Samaj, which continues to this day. The pamphlet was published in May, 1924, and by July, Muslim protests against it moved the authorities to act. Raj Pal was prosecuted under Section 153A of the Indian Penal Code. The text of 153A, with its explanation, prohibited the promotion of “enmity or hatred” as follows: Whoever by words, either spoken or written, or by signs, or by visible representations, or otherwise, promotes or attempts to promote feelings of enmity or hatred between different classes of Her Majesty’s subjects, shall be punished with imprisonment which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. Explanation — It does not amount to an offence within the meaning of this section to point out, without malicious intention and with an honest view to their removal, matters which are producing or have a tendency to produce, feelings of enmity or hatred between different classes of Her Majesty’s subjects. As pointed out by Neeti Nair, the problem of motive or intention would be seminal to the crafting of section 295A of the IPC. Hearings before the Magistrate began in October, and the trial dragged on for about 2 years, when the Magistrate Mr Phailbus finally found Raj Pal guilty of creating enmity between classes because “the natural result of the publication of such a pamphlet would be to incense the Muhammadans against the author of the book and those whom they conceive to be, rightly or wrongly, as the sympathizers of the author.” Raj Pal was sentenced to eighteen months’ rigorous imprisonment and a fine of one thousand rupees was imposed in lieu of an additional period of six months’ imprisonment. Curiously, the identity of the author was never really made a serious issue, even though one of the defences employed on behalf of Raj Pal was that he was only semi-literate and did not fully understand the contents of what he was innocently publishing. The judgement was carried to the Lahore Sessions Court. In his judgement of February 8, 1927, the Sessions Judge, Mr. F. Nicholas, reviewed the evidence in the case and upheld the conviction. He, however, reduced sentence to six months’ rigorous imprisonment. Following two orders of conviction, final appeal in the Rangila Rasul case lay before the Lahore High Court, where Justice Dalip Singh heard it, and handed down his judgement on May, 4 1927. It is with the pronouncement of this judgement (Raj Pal vs King Emperor, AIR 1927 Lah. 590) that the plot thickens. Before the High Court, it was contended on Raj Pal’s behalf that the subject facts could not have constituted a crime under 153A. It was further contended that while the lower courts had unequivocally arrived at the conclusion that the accused had no other intention than to “make a wanton attack upon the Prophet of Islam, to hold him up to ridicule and contempt, to ridicule his religion and thus to wound the feelings of his followers”, and that “in the case of this publication the intention was obviously to wound and insult the feelings of a particular community”, no such intention could, in fact, be discerned from the pamphlet. According to Raj Pal, his sole motivation was social reform, through satire and criticism. Rajpal believed that people would be “wean[ed] and deter[ed]” from the ‘evils of polygamy, concubinage, mutas, and gross disparity of age in marriage’ from the pamphlet’s discussion. This contention was rejected outright. The question, the Court formulated for its consideration, was whether malicious satire on a religious leader could be viewed as an attack on the religion as a whole. Justice Dalip Singh was clear that “the tone of the pamphlet as a whole is undoubtedly malicious and likely to wound the religious feelings of the Muslim community.” He was, however, unable to bring himself to accord a wide interpretation to 153A, whereby all adverse discussions of the life and character of a deceased religious leader were to be sanctioned. According to him, “that section was intended to prevent persons from making attacks on a particular community as it exists at the present time and was not meant to stop polemics against deceased religious leaders however scurrilous and in bad taste such attacks might be.” In conclusion, though he wholeheartedly agreed that the pamphlet could only evoke feelings of “contempt of all decent persons of whatever community”, and would especially wound the religious sentiments of certain Muslims, he could not “find anything in it which shows that it was meant to attack the Mahomedan religion as such or to hold up Mahomedans as objects worthy of enmity or hatred.” With a regret filled heart, he acquitted Raj Pal, but expressed a most earnest hope that the legislature would introduce amendments “by which the publication of pamphlets published with the intention of wounding the religious feelings of any person or of insulting the religion of any person might be made criminal”, and take care of the “tragic flaw”. By last week of May, mass protests erupted, with meetings at which representatives of various Muslim organizations competed with one another in giving moving speeches, partly intended to enlarge their own following, in the course of which there was a good deal of fiery anti-Hindu and anti-government rhetoric. Add to that the fact that Sir Hailey, Governor of Punjab, criticised the Arya Samaj, and met a Muslim deputation, against protocol. This is how the Hindustan Times characterised the situation on 3 August, 1927: In this powder magazine of communal hatred was thrown the ‘Rangila Rasul’ judgment as a bombshell. The Government did not move immediately to amend the law. They had hoped a “test case” would verify whether or not such attacks fell under the purview of 153A. Their hopes were dashed when the Vichitra Jivan (Kalicharan Sharma v. King Emperor, AIR 1927 All. 649) and Risala-i-Vartman (Devi Sharan Sharma and another v. King Emperor, AIR 1927 Lah. 594) cases held either in similar vein as the Rangila Rasul judgement, or failed to remove the ambiguity. Scholars have often referred to the “unprecedented level of virulence” that manifested in the “vicious campaigns of print warfare,” and “almost daily newspaper headlines about religious riots,” that characterized the 1920s. Those years saw an exponential increase in the number and diversity of publications, which provided a wide platform for communal confrontation. One term that is frequently used to describe a large number of publications of the time is “gutter press”. Radical opinions found mainstream outlets. One such publication was the Muslim Outlook, which saw it fit to publish such opinions in a series of articles, on the frontpage. The first of these, titled “Resign”, called for Justice Dalip Singh’s resignation while attributing his judgement to a “deplorable lack of experience and sense of responsibility” and “remarkable want of competence and care as a Judge”. The article further questioned his integrity and called for an enquiry into “circumstances under which that extraordinary judgment was written.” The editor and proprietor were cited by a Full Bench of the Lahore High Court (In the matter of Muslim Outlook, Lahore, AIR 1927 Lah. 610) for contempt and were handed severe sentences involving both imprisonment and fine. Hailey remarked that the contempt sentences were so severe as to appear vindictive. The following extract from the judgement might just resonate with more recent events: Whether it is right or wrong it has to be borne in mind that Courts are of necessity presided over by Judges who, like all other men, are mortal and liable to err. It is no offence to subject their decisions to fair, honest and reasonable criticism. Indeed, these criticisms may be couched in strong, perhaps, even extravagant language, but to ascribe their decisions not to error but to improper motives is to bring the Judge himself and the whole Court into contempt and undermine the confidence of the public in all judicial pronouncements and determinations. The contempt sentence only further aggravated the resentment that had already set in. Mounting tensions and increasingly prolific “gutter press” prompted Hailey to recommend the introduction of a bill within the Legislative Assembly to amend the Code. The fundamental question to be tackled, which the three recent judgements had also grappled with, was whether it was possible for a person to intend to insult a religion or religious feeling, without intending to promote hatred or enmity between classes of such persons. H. G Haig of the Home Department, who would go on to serve as Governor of the United Provinces, proposed that a law be drafted in which it were merely necessary to prove an intention to insult the religion or outrage the religious feelings of a class without having to show that such insult or outrage to feelings was intended to produce feelings of enmity or hatred. Haig’s views were echoed in the Punjab Legislative Council debate of July 18, 1927, and with the Viceroy’s approval, a draft was prepared along the proposed lines. Soon, the Bill was introduced in the Central Legislative Assembly by the Home Member J. Crerar, and on August 27, 1927, published in the official gazette. The Hindustan Times of August 26 reproduced the original text of the proposed Section 295A: Whoever by words either spoken or written or by signs or by visible representations or otherwise intentionally insult the religion or intentionally outrages or attempts to outrage the religious feelings of any class of His Majesty’s subjects shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. Support for the new law was expressed by different communities through public meetings, and was reported in the newspaper, as well as in editorials. Neeti Nair has painstakingly elaborated the Assembly debates that followed. The main objections in the Assembly, as stated by Pandit Thakur Das Bhargava was that “the right of criticism and the right of liberty of speech have been taken away to such a large extent that I fear that this Bill will ultimately, if passed into law in its present state, only perpetuate religious intolerance which it seeks to avoid.” Jinnah himself had expressed the hope that “the fundamental principle that those who are engaged in historical works, those who are engaged in the ascertainment of truth and those who are engaged in bona fide and honest criticisms of a religion shall be protected.” Erica McLachlan too has examined the debates in detail, while employing a unique literary style to narrate the story. The Bill went into a Select Committee comprised of M.A. Jinnah, Srinivasa Iyengar and N.C. Kelkar. The Committee made three major recommendations (i) punishable intention should be described as “deliberate” and “malicious”, (ii) insults to religious beliefs rather than to religious feelings should be made punishable, and (iii) the offense should be limited to verbal insults and “visible representations” rather than allowing additional reference to communication of insults or outrages “by signs . . . or otherwise.” As a result, the substantive part of the amended bill read: After section 295 of the IPC, the following section shall be inserted, namely— 295A. Whoever, with deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the religious feelings of any class of His Majesty’s subjects, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, insults or attempts to insult the religion or the religious beliefs of that class, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. (emphasis in the original) The Select Committee’s report was the subject of intense debate. According to Thursby, “on the one hand it was termed an undue concession to the Muslims, and on the other hand it was called an inadequate measure to stop attacks on the Prophet. Some referred to it as an ill-advised piece of panic legislation or as a government manoeuvre to further restrict the freedom of the press and to outlaw legitimate rational criticism of religion.” Despite everything, the Bill was passed substantially intact, and on 22 September, 1927, it received assent of the Governor General. The new law entered the statute books through the Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1927 as: 295A – Whoever, with deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the religious feelings of any class of His Majesty’s subjects, by words, either spoken or written, or by visible representations, insults or attempts to insult the religion or the religious beliefs of that class, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine, or with both. The original pamphlet, though, was not erased from memory. On 6 April, 1929, Ilam Din, “of some 19 or 20 years of age”, son of a carpenter, stabbed Raj Pal to death. When apprehended, he was stated to have “repeatedly and loudly proclaimed that he was neither a thief nor a dacoit but had ‘taken revenge for the prophet.'” It seems he had fallen prey to one of the many murderous campaigns launched by local fanatics. The boy had never read the pamphlet, or any other book for that matter. The Trial Court sentenced him to death. In his appeal before the Lahore High Court, he was defended by none other than Jinnah. Jinnah, apart from questioning the reliability of witnesses and admissibility of certain evidence, contended that the sentence of death was not called for, especially keeping in mind the accused’s age, and the fact that “that his act was prompted by feelings of veneration for the founder of his religion and anger at one who had scurrilously attacked him.” The appeal was dismissed, and the death sentence confirmed (Ilam Din vs King Emperor, AIR 1930 Lah. 157). Some say this is probably the only loss Jinnah faced in Court. Ilam Din was executed on 31 October, 1929. He has since been glorified in Pakistan as a shaheed, ghazi etc. 295A was enacted solely to keep the peace between Hinds and Muslims. It was a monumental failure in that regard. Now, almost a century later, things have come full circle. The law is making a spectacular comeback, not as an instrument of peace, but more as a coercive tool, prone to abuse. What is sad, though, is that despite the illustrious history, and prolific use in modern times, it remains bogged down in confusion and misunderstanding. It was recently invoked in a complaint by certain authors, against their critics, alleging “the offences of criminal intimidation and statements creating and promoting enmity, hatred, and ill will between classes under Sections 503, 505, 295A”. Once again, with an entirely misguided effort, 153A steals the show. There is something about 295A, that gets one’s creative juices flowing –comedian Kiku Sharda was imprisoned for ‘mimicking’ Gurmeet Ram Rahim Singh; 21-year-old Shaheen Dhada was arrested over her Facebook status questioning the Mumbai shutdown over Bal Thackeray’s death; Rehana Fathima was arrested for posting a picture of herself dressed as a Lord Ayyappa devotee, a month after the Supreme Court verdict on Sabrimala; the Supreme Court had to step in when the provision was invoked against Dhoni for posing as Lord Vishnu on a magazine cover; complaints were also filed when ONIDA featured Goddess Durga in one of their ads. According to Soli Sorabjee, “The issue is to be determined in the context of how these will be viewed by the people who see them, the intensity of their beliefs and sentiments, and their likely reactions. The yardstick is not the standards of hyper-sensitive and volatile minds but those of ordinary persons of normal sensibilities.” These principles, however, rarely percolate down to the overzealous policeman or the local political functionary, and the opposite seems to have become the norm. Many have called for the provision to be done away with, but that represents an entirely different set of problems which Gautam Bhatia has dealt with in some detail. Almost every aspect of this story from a bygone era – religious “restoration”, rise in communal confrontations, debate on free speech, nature of criticism of the judiciary, and role of the press in promoting dissension and hatred between communities, is in vogue today. Where does it all end.Views are personal only.Next Storylast_img read more

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